托福阅读细节题三原则

时间:2018-08-17 托福考试 我要投稿

托福阅读细节题三原则精选

  经过国内各种考试洗礼的同学一定对细节题不陌生,那么我们托福阅读的细节题(Factual Information questions)会有哪些有效的解题方法呢,我们今天就先从细节题的三个原则说起。

托福阅读细节题三原则精选

  一般学生在做托福阅读细节的时候往往会遇到3个问题:

  1:最常见的问题是根据定位词找不到对应的原文。当然找不到有两个原因,一个是定位词在段落中多次出现,以至于不知道定位到哪一句;另外一个原因就是定位词被改写,而在原文中又不知道它的替换词。

  2:选了本身说法完全正确的选项(原文中提及或者符合常理的选项)但悲催的发现这不是正确答案。

  3:还有找到了对应的原文但不知道哪个是正确答案。

  这三个问题其实也就对应我们的细节题的三个原则:

  1. 定位原则

  2. 符合题干原则

  3. 同义改写原则

  首先,针对第一种情况,根据定位词找不到对应的原文就出现了我们的第一个原则,定位原则。

  说到定位,我们一般都会首先想到名词定位,什么样的名词呢?有特点的名词,能够一眼看到的名词,比如专业术语,数字,年代,引号和斜体字等。这就好比在茫茫人海中找一个2.62的高人。但是,大家在托福阅读实战演习中往往会发现用名词定位会有一个很普遍的问题,就是名词往往会多次出现。这时候怎么办呢?用非名词定位,即动词和形容词定位。

  名词和非名词定位各有哪些优缺点呢?

  名词定位

  优点:不容易被改写

  缺点:可能会多次出现

  非名词定位

  优点:一般只出现一次

  缺点:容易被替换

  所以我们在考试和平时练习时一定要注意名词和非名词结合着去定位,名词多次出现的时候记得在题干中看看有没有合适的动词和形容词帮助定位。但要记得一般不用文章或段落的核心词去定位。但非名词的定位一定要注意找到它的替换词,这就要我们在平时练习中多加积累。

  接下来我们来看一道题

  TPO-9 Reflection in Teaching

  Paragraph 2: Wildman and Niles were particularly interested in investigating the conditions under which reflection might flourish – a subject on which there is little guidance in the literature. They designed an experimental strategy for a group of teachers in Virginia and worked with 40 practicing teachers over several years. They were concerned that many would be “drawn to these new, refreshing” conceptions of teaching only to find that the void between the abstractions and the realities of teacher reflection is too great to bridge. Reflection on a complex task such as teaching is not easy. The teachers were taken through a program of talking about teaching events, moving on to reflecting about specific issues in a supported, and later an independent, manner.

  5. According to paragraph 2, Wildman and Niles worried that the teachers they were working with might feel that

  ○ the number of teachers involved in their program was too large

  ○ the concepts of teacher reflection were so abstract that they could not be applied

  ○ the ideas involved in reflection were actually not new and refreshing

  ○ several years would be needed to acquire the habit of reflecting on their teaching

  首先我们来找一下定位词,用Wildman and Niles定位显然不太合适,因为全段都在讲这两个人的研究。剩下的词最好的'就是worried了,看看原文有没有worried的近义词。第二句讲到了这两个人做的一个实验。接下来第3句中有个词concerned (担心的),是不是=worried呀,所以这一句就讲个实验者比较担心的问题,即‘many would be “drawn to these new, refreshing” conceptions of teaching only to find that the void between the abstractions and the realities of teacher reflection is too great to bridge’. ‘drawn to’是被吸引,感兴趣的意思;void是差距,空隙的意思。即抽象的概念和教学反思的现实之间鸿沟太大而无法逾越。对应的就是B选项,其中be applied替换原文中的reality. 而A选项并没有提到实验的人数是个问题。C选项与‘many would be “drawn to these new, refreshing” conceptions of teaching’不符,即教学反思确实是一种new and refreshing concept. D选项与A类似,原文并没提到实验所需时间太长是个问题。所以正确选项是B。

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